Calotropis procera W. T. Aiton

Calotropis procera W. T. Aiton

Botanical Name:        Calotropis procera W. T. Aiton Calotropis proceraW.T. Aiton

Kingdom:                    Plantae

Order:                         Gentinales

Family:                        Apocynaceae

Genus:                         Calotropis

Local Name:                Akada

Sindhi Name:              Aak,Akada

Part Used:                   Seeds and roots

English Name:             Sodom Apple, Crown Flower

 

Description

Calotropis procera W. T. Aitonis erect shrub. Young branches and young leaves are covered with white cottony tomentum. Bark is soft and corky. Leaves are broadly ovate andsubsessile. Flowers are white from outside, purplish within, and with dark tips. Fruit is recurved. Seeds are long, flat, and broadly ovate1.

Occurrence

C. procera is native to North Africa, Tropical Africa, Western Asia, South Asia, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran, and Indochina2,3.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Wound:

  1. Milk of Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton (Milkweed) is applied topically once on wound in the Districts Sukkur, Umerkot, Ghotki, Kashmore, Shikarpur, Dadu, Tandoallahyar, and Khairpur (Sindh). This milk is also applied on pediculosis capitis in the District Jamshoro (Sindh). It is also used for curing scabies, vitiligo, and ichthiosis in District Badin (Sindh), and for fungal infection in District Karachi (Sindh).
  2. Extract of C. procera wood is applied on wound for healing in the District Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. Extract of C. procera wood and Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) is applied on the wound in District Sukkur (Sindh) .
  4. Paste of C. procera leaves is applied on the wound and for curing scabies in the Districts Sukkur, Shiakrpur, Tandoallahyar, Ghotki, and Badin (Sindh). It is also used for the treatment of heat rashes in the District Umerkot (Sindh) and for curing red spots and foot infections in the District Tharparker (Sindh).
  5. Extract of C. procera wood is prepared in the water, heated and used for healing of wound and for curing abscess in the District Sukkur (Sindh).
  6. Ground Artemesisia scoporia Waldst. (Red Stem), C. procera , and jaggery to make a paste, and this paste is applied on affected area for healing wound in the District Sukkur (Sindh).
  7. Ashes of C. procera leaves are tied on the wound in the District Badin (Sindh).
  8. Leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Mushk bair*, ashes of C. procera leaves are ground and mixed in oil of Brassica compestris L. (Mustard) and the oil is applied twice a day on wound in the District Badin (Sindh).
  9. Leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and C. procera are grinded and mixture is applied on wound in the District Kashmore (Sindh).
  10. C. procera leaves are fried in oil and tied on a wound for healing in District Larkana (Sindh).
  11. Peel off C. procera wood and grounded and applied on wound in District Nosheroferoz (Sindh).
  12. Paste of C. procera leaves is applied on the wound in the Districts Khairpur and Tandojam (Sindh).

 Eczema and Ringworm

  1. Paste of C. procera flower is applied on the affected area of ring worm for three days in the District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  2. Paste of C. procera flowers is fried in oil of Brassica compestr is (Mustard) and applied on affected area of eczema and ringworm twice a day, until complete recovery occurs, in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  3. Paste of C. procera leaves is applied on the area affected of ringworm for 3-4 days in Districts Umerkot, Khairpur and Mitiari (Sindh). This paste is also used for curing fungal infections in District Sajawal (Sindh).
  4. Juice of C. procera plant is applied on affected area of ringworm for 3-4 days in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  5. Paste of C. procera plant is heated and applied on the affected area from ringworm in District Karachi (Sindh).
  6. Milk of C. procera is applied on the affected area of ringworm in the Districts Sajawal, Nawabshah, Shiakrpur, Badin, and Umerkot (Sindh). It is also used to cure fungal infections, in District Nawabshah (Sindh).
  7. Milk of C. procera is taken orally for curing ringworm in the Districts Tando Muhammad Khan, Tharparker, Mitiari and Sanghar (Sindh).
  8. Leaves of Allium sativum L. (Garlic), C. procera , and Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black Rsyllium) and mahjandarin are ground and paste is applied on the ring worm in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Pyoderma

Ashes of C. procera leaves are mixed with vegetable oil and oil is applied on the affected area of pyoderma in the District Jacobabad (Sindh) and for curing scabies in District Mitiari (Sindh).

Acne:

Gel isolated from the C. procera leaves is used for curing acne in the District Badin (Sindh).

Abscess:

  1. Flower of C. procera is burnt in oil of Brassica compestris (Mustard) and the oil is applied on affected area for 3 days in the District Badin (Sindh).
  2. Paste of C. procera leaves is used for the treatment of abscess in Districts Sukkur, and Kamber Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
  3. Milk of C. procera leaves is used for curing abscess in District Kamber Shahdad Kot (Sindh).

Vitiligo

  1. Paste of C. procera flower is applied on the affected area daily until complete recovery from vitiligo occurs in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. Milk of C. procera is taken orally for the treatment of vitiligo in District Badin (Sindh).

Prickly heat

  1. The paste of flower is mixed with oil extracted from the same plant and applied on the area affected from prickly heat in District Nawabshah (Sindh).
  2. Milk of C. procera is used for curing prickly heat in District Tandoallahyar (Sindh).

Scabies

  1. Paste of C. procera leaves mixed in oil and is used for curing scabies in Districts Kashmore and Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Milk of C. procera is mixed with Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat) and the paste is used for curing scabies in District Thatta (Sindh).
  3. Ashes of C. procera and oil extracted from this plant are mixed and used for curing scabies in District Tharparkar (Sindh).
  4. Paste of C. procera leaves is used for curing scabies in the Districts Sukkur, Ghotki, and Badin (Sindh).

Fungal infection:

  1. Milk of C. procera is taken orally for curing fungal infections in District sHyderabad , Kamber Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
  2. Paste of C. procera leaves is used for curing tinea versicolor (fungal infection) in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of C. procera are rubbed at the affected site for the treatment of tinea versicolor (fungal infection) in District Kamber Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
  4. Leaves of Cressa cretica Linn. (Littoral Bind Weed), tarri*, Artemesisia scoporia Waldst. (Red Stem), and C. procera are mixed with soap and the resulting paste is applied on the affected area for curing tinea ungium (fungal infection) in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Dog bite:

Oil of C. procera flower is applied at dog bite site and alopecia in the District Sukkur (Sindh).

Foot Infection:

  1. Paste of C. procera leaves is mixed in vegetable oil and is used for curing foot infections in District Mitiari (Sindh).
  2. Paste of C. procera leaves and Azadirachta indica (Neem) is made and used for the treatment of leg infection in District Mitiari (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Leaves of C. procera contain α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, urosolic acid, cardenolides, calotropin and calotropagenin. Calotropin, calotoxin, calactin,uzarigenin, syriogenin,and proceroside were isolated from latex and flower. Calotropursenylacetate, calotropfriedelenyl acetate, akundarolisovalerate, mundarolisovalerate, and quercetin-3-rutinoside were isolated from root bark. Calotropagenin, proceragenin and uscharidinare found in flower4.

Chemical Structure:

C procera stl

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

Root powder of C. procerais used for the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, leprosy, elephantiasis and eczema. Latex is used for the prevention of vertigo, toothache, hair loss, intermittent fevers, baldness, swelling of joint and paralysis. Leaves are applied for reducing joints pain and swelling5.

C. procerais reported for antimicrobial, nematocidal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and larvicidal activities. Ethanolic extract of the roots showed strong anti-implantation and uterotropic activities. Root extract possessed anti tumor activity. Dry latex possessed potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti diarrhoeal, and anti hyperglycemic effects. Hydro-ethanolic extract showed hepato protective effect. Plant is also reported for anti convulsant, antimicrobial, oestrogenic, anti nociceptive, and antimalarial activities4.

References

  1. BIF Secretariat: GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. doi:10.15468/39omei
  2. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2001-10-19.
  3. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=250077161
  4. Meena, A. K., Yadav, A. K., Niranjan, U. S., Singh, B., Nagariya, A. K., Sharma, K., Gaurav, A., Sharma, S. and Rao, M. M. (2010). A review on Calotropisprocera Linn and its ethnobotany, phytochemical, pharmacological profile. Drug Invention Today, 2(2), 185-190.
  5. Quazi, S., Mathur, K., and Arora, S. (2013). Calotropisprocera: An overview of its phytochemistry and pharmacology. Indian Journal of Drugs, 1(2), 63-69.