Azadirachta indica J. Juss.

Azadir achta indica A. Juss.

 Botanical Name: Azadir achta indica A. Juss.Azadir achta indica A. Juss.

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Rutales

Family:                         Meliaceae

Genus:                          Azadirachta

Local Name:                  Neem, Nim

Sindhi Name:                 Nimoori, Nimmi

Part Used:                     Leaves, twigs, seeds, and fruit

English Name:               Margosa

 Description

Azadirachtaindica A. Juss.ismedium sized and fast growing trees.Leaves are purple-red when young and green at mature. Trunk is short and straight.Flowers are small, white,and 150-200 on each branch. Fruit are olive-like. Skin of ripe fruitis thin and yellow.  Pulp is bitter-sweet, yellowish, and very fibrous3.

Occurrence

A. indicais native to Indian subcontinent and growing in Asia, Kenya,Africa, Australia, Uganda, Tanzania, and North, Central, and South America4.

Scabies and Eczema

  1. Leaves of AzadirachtaindicaA. Juss. (Neem) is boiled in water, and bath is taken with this water for the treatment of scabies and eczema in Districts Naushehroferoz andUmerkot (Sindh).
  2. Fruit of A. indica(Neem) is heated and ground to form paste and applied for the treatment of scabies in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. Fruit of A. indica(Neem) is taken orally for the treatment of scabies in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  4. A. indicawater bath is taken for the treatment of scabies and heat rashes in Districts Nawabshah, Larkana, and Tharparker (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of pyoderma in Districts kashmore andKhairpur (Sindh) and for the treatment of measles in District Karachi (Sindh).
  5. Leaves of A. indica are soaked in water overnight, this water is taken orally in fasting condition for the treatment of scabies in District Tharparker (Sindh).
  6. Leaves of Acacia erioloba E. Meyer (Camelthorn) and A. indicaare boiled and ground with oil to form paste, this paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of scabies in District Tharparkar (Sindh).
  7. Ground fruit of A. indicato form paste, this paste is applied topically for the treatment of scabies in Districts Naushehroferoz, Karachi, Kashmore, andNawab shah (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of wounds in Districts Khairpur andMirpurkhas (Sindh).
  8. Ground fruit of A. indicato form paste, this paste is taken orally for the treatment of scabies in Districts Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  9. Fruit of A. indica is ground to form powder and applied for the treatment of scabies in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  10. Leaves of A. indica are warmed with oil of Brassica compestris L. (Mustard), this oil is applied for the treatment of scabies in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  11. Ground leaves of A. indica in oil of Cocusnucifera L. (Coconut) to form paste and applied on affected area for the treatment of scabies in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  12. Ground leaves of A. indica with Carumcopticum L. (Bishops weed) to form paste and applied on affected area for the treatment of scabies in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  13. Boil leaves of A. indicaand bath is taken with this water for the treatment of scabies and measles in Districts Hyderabad, Badin,TandoAllahyar,kambar-shahdadkot,sukkur,and Mirpurkhas (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of prickly heat in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  14. Boil leaves of A. indicaand bath is taken with this water, oil of Brassica Compestris (Mustard)is applied after bath for the treatment of scabies in District Larkana (Sindh).
  15. Fagonia Arabica L. (Cretan prickly) and A. indicaare boiled, bath is taken with this water for the treatment of scabies in District Badin (Sindh).
  16. Leaves of LallemantiaroyleanaBenth. (Cool seeds) and A. indica are ground to form paste and applied twice a day for the treatment of scabie sin District Badin (Sindh).
  17. Ground leaves of indicawith sulfur and mixed in oil of Brassica compestris (Mustard) to form paste and applied daily for the treatment of scabies in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).
  18. Seeds and leaves of indicaare soaked in water for 4-5 days and ground to from paste, this paste is applied for the treatment of scabies in District Badin (Sindh).
  19. Leaves of A. indicaare boiled with salt, bath is taken with this water for the treatment of scabiesin District Badin (Sindh).
  20. Leaves of A. indica are ground with Citrus limonum R. (Lemon) juice and mixed in Sindh oil to form paste and applied topically for the treatment of scabies in DistrictSanghar (Sindh).

Boils

  1. Ground leaves of A. indica and Ipomoea aquatic Forssk. (Water Spinach) to form paste and applied on affected area for 3-4 days for the treatment of boils for the treatment of boils in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  2. Leaves of AchyranthesasperaLinn. (Chaff-flower) and A. indica are boiled, this water is used to wash affected area for the treatment of boils in District Badin (Sindh).

Eczema

  1. Leaves of Acacia eriolobaE. Meyer(Camelthorn) and A. indica are boiled and bath is taken with this water for the treatment of eczema in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).
  2. Ground leaves of ZiziphusnumulariaL. (Chinese apple) and A. indicato form paste and applied for the treatment of eczema in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Wound

  1. Seeds and flowers of A. indica are ground with oil of Brassica compestrisL. (Mustard) to form paste and applied for the treatment of wounds in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  2. Ground leaves of A. indicaand applied for the treatment of wounds in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of A. indicaare soaked in water, bath is taken with this water after adding Dettol for the treatment of wounds in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  4. Leaves of A. indicaare warmed or toasted on fire and tied hot on wounds for the treatment of wounds in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  5. A. indicais ground with oil of Brassica compestris (Mustard) to form paste and applied for the treatment of wounds in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  6. Ground leaves of A. indicawith oil of Brassica compestris(Mustard) to form paste and applied for the treatment of wounds in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  7. Leaves of A. indicaand Calotropisporcera W.T. Aiton (Milk weed) are ground with oil of Brassica compestris (Mustard) and applied twice a day for the treatment of wounds in District Badin (Sindh).

Eczema, Candiasis, and Dermatitis

  1. Boil leaves of A. indica this water is taken orally for the treatment of eczema, candiasis, and dermatitis in District Umerkot (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of wounds and abscess in Districts Thatta and Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Leaves of A. indica are boiled and this water is applied for the treatment of candida infection in District Thatta (Sindh).

Ringworm

  1. Ground branches of A. indicaand mixed with oil of Brassica compestris (Mustard) to form paste and applied for the treatment of ringworm in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  2. Ground leaves of A. indicaand SalvadoraoleiodsDecne (Salvadora) to form paste and applied topically for the treatement of ringworm in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  3. Ground leaves of A. indica to form paste and applied topically for the treatment of ringworm and fungal infection in Districts TandoAllahyar andSanghar (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of impetigo in District Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh)and for the treatment of pyoderma in District sukkur.
  4. Ground leaves of A. indica with Allium sativumL. (Garlic) and Lallemantiaroyleana (Cool seeds) to form paste and applied on the affected area for the treatment of ringworm in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  5. A. indica plant is soaked overnight, this water is taken orally for the treatment of ringworm in District Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).

Pyodermaand Prickly Heat

  1. Ground leaves of A. indicaand Calotropisporcera (Crown Flower) to form paste and applied topically for a week for the treatment of pyoderma in District Umerkot (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of wounds in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Leaves of A. indicaare fried in clarified butter, this butter is applied on pyoderma infection for the treatment of pyoderma in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  3. Fruit of A. indicais taken orally for the treatment of pyoderma, and dandruff in Districts Shikarpur, andUmerkot (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of prickly heat, acne, pyoderma, and abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  4. Ground leaves of A. indica with Bark of CinnamomumverumJ.Presl (Cinnamon) to form paste and applied for the treatment of pyoderma in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  5. Leaves of A. indica are burnt in mustard oil and applied for the treatment of pyoderma in DistrictsTando Mohamad Khan(Sindh).
  1. Extracts of A. indicaleaves is taken orally daily applied for the treatment of pyoderma in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Soaked water of A. indicais taken orally for the treatment of pyoderma in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of A. indicaare boiled, this water is taken orally for 4-5 days for the treatment of pyoderma in District Shikarpur (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of scabies and ichthyosis in District Badin (Sindh).
  4. Leaves of A. indicaare burned to ashes and mixed oil, this mixture is applied topically for the treatment of pyoderma in District Thatta (Sindh).
  5. Ground leaves of A. indicaand mixed oil, this mixture is applied topically for the treatment of pyoderma in District Matiari (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of scabies in District Karachi (Sindh).
  6. Leaves of A. indica is mixed with soaked fuller’s earth and oil to form paste and applied on affected area, bath is taken after few hours for the treatment of pyoderma in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  7. Flower of A. indicais ground to form paste and applied for the treatment of pyoderma in District Kambar-shdadkot (Sindh).
  8. Ground leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.)(Gum arabica) and A. indica and mixed with fuller’s earth to form paste and applied for the treatment of pyoderma in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  9. Ground leaves of A. indica to form paste and applied for the treatment of pyoderma in District Jacobabad (Sindh). This remedy is also applied for the treatment of external otitis and candiasis in District Badin (Sindh) and for the treatment of hand infection in District TandoAllahyar (Sindh).

Hair fall

  1. Fruit of A. indica(Neem) is fried with leaves ofLawsoniainermis(Henna) in Brassica compestris(Mustard)oil, this mixture is applied on scalp for the treatment of hair fall in District Tando Mohammad Khan (Sindh).
  2. Ground fruit of A. indica to form paste and applied for the treatment of hair loss and prickly heat in District Sukkur (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of fungal infection in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  3. Dried fruit of A. indica is ground with oil of Cocusnucifera (Coconut) to form paste and applied on scalp for the treatment of hair loss in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  4. Oil of A. indica(Neem) fruit is applied on the scalp for the treatment of hair loss in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  5. Ground leaves of A. indica to form paste and applied for the treatment of hair loss in District Sukkur (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of scabies and chicken pox in District Matiari (Sindh) and for the treatment of insect bites in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

Abscess

  1. Leaves and fruit of A. indica are fried in Brassica compestris(Mustard)oil, this mixture is applied on affected areas for the treatment of abscess in District Tando Mohammad Khan (Sindh).
  2. Ground ZiziphusnumulariaL. (Chinese apple), DalbergisissooRoxb. (North Indian Rosewood) and A. indica and mixed with soaked fuller’s earth to form paste and applied on abscess till it burst and recovered for the treatment of abscess in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of A. indica are ground with Syzygiumaromaticum (Clove) to form paste and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).
  4. Leaves of A. indicais boiled with bark of Acacia nilotica (Gum Arabica), this water is used to wash affected areas 2-3 times a day for the treatment of abscess in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  5. A. indica water is taken orally for a week for the treatment of abscess in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  6. Fruit of A. indica is dipped in oil of Brassica compestris and burnt to ashes, ash is then applied for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Itching

Ground leaves of A. indica to form paste and applied for the treatment of skin irritation in District Khairpur (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of scabies in District Kashmore (Sindh) and for the treatment of insect bite in District Karachi (Sindh).

Dandruff

  1. Ground leaves and fruit of A. indicato form paste and applied on scalp for the treatment of dandruff in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Boiled water of A. indicaleaves is used to wash hairs for the treatment of dandruff and bath is taken with this water for the treatment of scabies and pyoderma in Districts Nawabshah and Sukkur (Sindh).This remedy is also used for the treatment of scabies in Districts Sanghar and Shikarpur (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of A. indica and Carumcopticum (Bishops weed) are ground into paste with oil, and applied for the treatment of dandruff in District Thatta (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of scabies in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Fungal infection

  1. Leaves of Lallemantiaroyleana (Cool seeds) and A. indicaare boiled, infected areas are washed with this water2-3 times a dayfor the treatment of fungal infection in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  2. Leaves of A. indica are soaked in water, bath is taken with this water for the treatment of fungal infection in Districts Nawabshah andSanghar (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of injuries and wounds in District Thatta (Sindh) and for the treatment of scabies in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  3. Wood of A. indica(Neem) is burned and extract is applied on infected area for the treatment of fungal infection in District Thatta (Sindh).
  4. Flower of A. indica is ground and mixed with oil to form paste and applied for the treatment of fungal infection in District Kambar-shdadkot (Sindh).

Tineacapititis

Leaves and fruit of A. indica are ground to form paste and applied twice a day for the treatment of tineacapititis in District Badin (Sindh).

Acne

Ground leaves of A. indicawith Citrus limonumR. (Lemon) to form paste and applied for the treatment of acne and pimples in District Thatta (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of alopecia in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).

Heat Rashes

  1. Ground leaves of A. indicawith crushed soap and SaccharumofficinarumL. (Table sugar) to form paste and applied for the treatment of heat rashes in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. Leaves of A. indica(Neem) and Acacia eriolobaE. Meyer(Camelthorn) are boiled, this water is taken orally for 10-12 days for the treatment of heat rashes in District Tharparkar (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of A. indica are ground with Citrus limonum (Lemon) juice to form paste and applied topically for the treatment of skin rashes in Districts Kashmore andNawab shah (Sindh).
  4. Leaves of A. indica are boiled and mixed with few drops of Citrus limonum(Lemon) juice, bath is taken with this water for the treatment of heat rashes in District Badin (Sindh).
  5. Leaves of A. indica are ground and mixed in oil of Brassica compestris (Mustard) and applied on affected area for the treatment of heat rashes in District Kambar-shdadkot (Sindh).
  6. Leaves of A. indica are mixed with Fuller’s earth to form paste and applied on affected area for the treatment of prickly heat in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  7. Seeds of ElettariacardamomumMaton. (Cardamom) is boiled with leaves of A. indicaand crystal sugar, this water is taken orally for the treatment of scabies in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  8. Leaves of A. indica is ground with crystal sugar, this mixture is taken orally for the treatment of prickly heat in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  9. Boil leaves of A. indica, Myrtuscommunis(Myrtle), with AmomumsubulatumRoxb. (Black cardamom), and 3-4 crystal sugar, and drink for two days for the treatment of measles in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Measles

  1. Ground leaves of A. indica, with Withania Coagulation Dunal. (Vegetable rennet),Elettariacardamomum(cardamom),and disperine and mixed in oil to form paste, this paste is applied for the treatment of measles in District Thatta (Sindh).
  2. Leaves of A. indicais ground with Phoenix dactyliferaL. (Dates) in goat milk to form paste and applied for the treatment of chicken pox in District Nawabshah (Sindh).
  3. Ground plant of A. indica to form paste and applied for the treatment of measles and external otitis in District Nawabshah (Sindh).
  4. Ground Ziziphusnumularia (Chinese apple) and leaves of A. indicato form paste and applied for the treatment of chicken pox and boils in District Matiari (Sindh).
  5. Leaves of A. indica are soaked overnight, this water is taken orally in the morning in fasting condition for the treatment of chicken pox in District Hyderabad (Sindh).

Alopecia and Scabies

  1. Ground fruit of A. indica in oilto form paste and applied topically for the treatment of alopecia in Districts Khairpur (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of scabies in District Khairpur (Sindh) and to get rid of head lice in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  2. Ground leaves of Lawsoniainermis L. (Henna) with fruit of A. indicato form paste and applied on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  3. Dried fruit of A. indica is ground and mixed in oil of Brassica compestris(Mustard) to form paste and applied on scalp for the treatment of alopecia in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Burn

Ground bark A. indicato fine powder and applied on affected area for the treatment of burn in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).

Vitiligo

Fruit of A. indica is ground with Terminaliabellirica(Gaertn.Roxb. (Beleric), Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), Foeniculumvulgare L. (Fennel seeds) and Zingiberofficinale Roscoe (Ginger) to form paste and applied for the treatment of vitiligo in District Larkana (Sindh).

Pustules

Leaves of A. indica, DalbergisissooRoxb. (North Indian Rosewood), Triticumaestivum L. (Wheat), and Ziziphusnumularia (Chinese apple) are ground with powdered Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) and mixed in oil of Brassica compestris (Mustard) to form paste, this paste is applied warmed for the treatment of pustules in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Pediculosis

Oil extract of A. indicaflowers is applied on affected area for the treatment of pediculosis in District TandoAllahyar (Sindh).

Blood blisters

Leaves of A. indica are tied on affected area for the treatment of blood blisters in District Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).

Edema

Oil extract of A. indica leaves is applied on swelled area for the treatment of edema in District Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).

Chemical constituents

Azadirachtin, nimbin, sodium nimbinate, salanin, quercetin, gedunin, limonoids, pentaterpinoids, hexaterpinoids, kaempferol, flavonoids, and vepininwere some of the important constituents isolated from A. indica6.

Chemical Structure:

Azadir achta indica A. Juss.st.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Gum of A. indicais used against various skin diseases such as scabies, ulcer, and healing wound. Bark is used in Ayurvedic medicine as a curative agent for fever. Seed and oil is used for the treatment of leprosy and intestinal worms.  Leaves are used in treating eye problems and anorxia8. Part of A. indicasuch as root, fruitBark, flower, and leaf together cure various blood and skin problems such as blood morbidity, biliary afflictions, skin ulcers, itching, burns, and pthysis9.

Pharmacological activities of A. indicaincludes antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, anticancer, analgesic, antiulcer, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antiplasmodial, antipyretic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antifeedant, immunocontraceptive, anti-implantation, hepatoprotective, antitrypanosomal, antioxidant, and orodental protection activities4,7. A. indica also showed reported toxic effect such as, genotoxic, allergic, radiosensitizing, and cytogenetic7.

References

  1. CABI invasive species compendium online data sheet. Azadirachta indica (neem tree). CABI Publishing 2011. cabi.org/ISC. Accessed March 2011.
  2. Ganguli, S. (2002). Neem: A therapeutic for all seasons. Current Science. 82(11):1304
  3. Bhattacharyya, K. G., andSarma, A. (2003). Adsorption characteristics of the dye, Brilliant Green, on Neem leaf powder. Dyes and Pigments, 57(3), 211-222.
  4. Subapriya, R., andNagini, S. (2005). Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review. Current Medicinal Chemistry-Anti-Cancer Agents, 5(2), 149-156.
  5. Girish, K., andShankaraBhat, S. (2008). Neem–a green treasure. Electronic journal of Biology, 4(3), 201-111.
  6. Chagas, A. C. S., Vieira, L. S., Freitas, A. R., Araújo, M. R. A., Araújo-Filho, J. A., Araguao, W. R., and Navarro, A. M. C. (2008). Anthelmintic efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) and the homeopathic product FatorVermes® in Morada Nova sheep. Veterinary Parasitology, 151(1), 68-73.
  7. Atawodi, S. E., and Atawodi, J. C. (2009). Azadirachtaindica (neem): a plant of multiple biological and pharmacological activities. Phytochemistry Reviews, 8(3), 601-620.
  8. http://www.infinityfoundation.com/mandala/t_es/t_es_agraw_neem.htmnd.
  9. Biswas, K., Chattopadhyay, I., Banerjee, R. K., andBandyopadhyay, U. (2002). Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachtaindica). Current Science, 82(11), 1336.