Avena sativa L.

Avena sativa L.                                                                                                    

 

Botanical Name:             Avena  sativa L.Grains of Avena sativa L.

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Cyperales

Family:                         Poaceae ⁄ Gramineae –

Genus:                           Avena

Local Name:                  Jau

Sindhi Name:                 Jai

English Name:               Oats

Part Used:                     Grains

 

Description

Avena sativaL.   is erect and tall annual grass. Leaves are long and wide while sheaths are long and loose. Panicle is terminal; spikeletsare long and 2-flowered.Glumes are several-nerved; lemma is glabrous with acute teeth.Kernel is narrow, long, hairy, and enclosed in lemma1.

Occurrence

Avena sativaL. is cultivated throughout the temperate zones of the Old and New Worlds1. In Pakistan, it is cultivated in Sindh, Punjab, Kashmir, Baluchistan, and Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa2.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Eczema

Leaves of Avena sativa L. (Oats) leaves are ground to form paste and applied on the body for the treatment of eczema in District Thatta (Sindh).

Abscess

Leaves of D. sisso, Ziziphus numularia L. (Chinese apple) are ground and mixed with flour of Avena sativaL. (Oat)to form paste, this paste is applied topically on affected area daily for the treatment of Abscess in District Matiari (Sindh).

Vitiligo

GroundTerminalia bellirica (Harir), Foeniculum vulgare L. (Fennel seed), Avena sativaL. (Oat), Zingiber Officinale Roscoe. (Ginger), fruit of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), and C. longa is applied for the treatment of vitiligo till recovery in District Larkana (Sindh).

Boils

Paste of Z. numularia and Dalbergi sissooRoxb. (Rose wood) leaves is mixed in flour of Avena sativaL. (Oat)and applied for the treatment of abscess and boils in District Matiari (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Glutelin and avenin are protein fractions extracted from fruits of Avena sativa L. Lipid (Avenothionin), Alkaloids (Gramine), Steroids (Stigmasterin and avenasterin), N-containing carboxylic acids (Avenicacid A and B), saponins (AvenacosideA and B), and sugar (β-glucan,  pentosans,  saccharose,  kestose,  neokestose,  bifurcose,  neobifurcose,  and  galactoarabinoxylan acid) were also isolated from different parts of this plant. Organic acids such as malic, citric, malonic, aconitic, Caffeic, andferulic, and polyphenols such as avenanthramides are present in seeds3.

Chemical Structure:

Avena sativa L.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Consumption of whole grain cereal is used for decreasing the risks of various diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease4. It used increased cognitive performance and mental health. It also used to overcome state of stress, tension, anxiety, and excitation5.A. sativa is reported for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic6, dermatological, gastrointestinal, hypolipidemic, neurological, and cardiovascular activities7. Alcoholic extract is helpful in reducing the craving and rate of cigarettes smoked7.

References

  1. https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Avena_sativa.html
  2. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242307408
  3. Laekeman, G., and Vlietinck, A.(2008). Assessment Report on Avena sativa, Herba and Avena sativa L., Fructus, European Medicines Agency, 2-21. Doc. Ref. EMEA/HMPC/202967/2007
  4. Peters, F. N. (1937). Oat flour as an antioxidant. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 29(2), 146-151.
  5. Ahmed, S., Gul, S., Gul, H., and Bangash, M. H. (2013). Anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet activities of Avena sativa are mediated through the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. Int J Endorsing Health Sci, 1, 62-65.
  6. Singh, R., De, S., and Belkheir, A. (2013). Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 53(2), 126-144.
  7. Al-Snafi, A. (2015). The Nutritional and Therapeutic Importance of Avena sativa-An Overview, International Journal of Phytotherapy, 5(1), 48-56.