Allium sativum L.

Allium sativumL.

Botanical Name:             Allium sativumL.Allium sativumL.

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Asparagales

Family:                         Alliaceae

Genus:                          Allium

Local Name:                  Lehsan

Sindhi Name:                 Thooma

English Name:               Garlic

Parts Used:                    Bulb

Description

Allium sativumL. is a bulbous and perennial herb. Bulb is ovoid in shape and consists of cloves that are wrapped in white papery cover. Flowers are white to reddish and present at the top of a stem white to reddish flowers. Leaves are linear and flattened1,2.

Occurrence

A. sativumis widely distributed to Asia,Africa, and Europe1. It is widely grow in most of the tropical and subtropical region. It is extensively cultivated in Pakistan1,2.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:

Paste of Allium sativumL. (Garlic) is applied 2-3 times daily on ringworm in Districts Sanghar, Umerkot, Mirpurkhas, Karachi, Nawabshah, NaushahroFeroz, Sajawal, Jamshoro, Kahmore, Sukkur, Tando Jam, Khairpur, and Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh). It is also applied topically on nails for one week for the treatment of onychomycosis, alopecia, and fungal infection in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh). It is used externally 3-4 times a day for the treatment of tineacapitis in District Umerkot (Sindh). It is also applied on nails for the treatment of onychomycosis and on scalp for alopecia in District Nawabshah (Sindh). It is applied on scalp for the treatment of alopecia and on wound for healing in District Ghotki (Sindh). It is applied topically 2-3 times a day for one week for the treatment of fungal infection, onchomycosis, alopecia, ringworm in District Badin (Sindh).it is also applied on scalp for hair growth on alopecia affected are in District Khairpurand sukkur(Sindh).

Alopecia

  1. Citrus limonumR. (Lemon) juice is mixed with crushed A. sativumand make an extract, and applied on scalp for the treatment of alopecia in District Mitiari (Sindh).
  2. Allium cepa L. (Onion) and A. sativumare crushed and then rubbed on alopecia in District Mitiari (Sindh).
  3. Citrus limonum(Lemon) juice, crushed A. sativum, and LawsoniainermisL. (Henna) powder is mixed together to make a thick paste, and applied on scalp for the treatment of alopecia in District Ghotki and Jamshoro (Sindh).
  4. LallemantiaroyleanaBenth. (Black psylium) and A. sativumare crushed, and then rubbed area affected with alopecia in District QamberShahdadkot (Sindh).
  5. Ground A. sativum and Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper) are mixed with karwa oil to make an oily solution. It is massaged on scalp for the treatment of alopecia in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Impetigo, pityriasisalba, and tineacapitis:

A. sativum is crushed and its juice is applied topically for the treatment of impetigo in District Tando Allah yarand QamberShahdadkot(Sindh). It is applied topically for the treatment of fungal infection, such as pityriasis alba, and tineacapitis and TandoJam(Sindh).

 Scabies:

  1. A. sativum cloves are boiled in some water and this water is used for washing affected area for the treatment of scabies in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  2. A. sativumis rubbed on infected area for the treatment of scabies in District Tando Jam (Sindh).

Ringworm

  1. A. sativum leaves, AzadirachtaindicaA. Juss (Neem) leaves, and LallemantiaroyleanaBenth. (Black psyllium) leaves are ground to make a paste, and applied topically for the treatment of ringworm in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. A. sativum cloves and Azadirachtaindica(Neem) leaves are boiled together in water. This water is used for washing area affected with ringworm in District Badin (Sindh).
  3. ZingiberofficinaleRoscoe. (Ginger) and A. sativum are ground to make a paste, and applied topically on ringworm affected area in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  4. A. sativumand LallemantiaroyleanaBenth. (Black Psyllium) leaves are ground to make paste, and applied on ringworm in District sukkur, ghotki, and naushahroferoz.
  5. Acacia jacquemontiiBenth. (Brigalow), A. sativum, and Lallemantiaroyleanaare ground to make a paste, and applied topically 2-3 times a week for the traetment of ringworm in District Badin (Sindh).
  6. ZiziphusnumulariaL. (Chinese apple) leaves are ground with A. sativumto make a paste, used externally for the treatment of ringworm in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  7. Allium cepa L. (Onion) and A. sativumare crushed to make a paste, and applied topically for the treatment of ringworm in District Mitiari (Sindh).
  8. A. sativumis rubbed on affected area for the treatment of ringworm in District Jamshoro and QamberShahdadkot (Sindh).

Hair loss

Fried A. sativumin mustard oil is applied on scalp daily for one week in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Scabies

  1. TrachyspermumammiL. (Carom) and A. sativumare ground to make a paste, and taken orally with water daily in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  2. Sulfur and A. sativumjuice are mixed with karwa oil to make a remedy, applied on scabies in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Vitiligo

Crushed A. sativumis applied on affected area twice a day till recovery on white spots for the treatment for Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

 Alopecia, Fungal infection, athlete’s foot,and Ringworm

A. sativumis rubbed on affected area for the treatment of alopecia District Thattaand Sukkur(Sindh). It is also rubbed on area of fungal infection and ringworm in District Thatta and Khairpur (Sindh). It is also rubbed on area of fungal infection and athlete’s foot in in District QamberShahdadkot (Sindh).the same remedy is also used for the treatment of fungal infection in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Boils

Allium cepa and A. sativumare ground together to make a paste. This paste is applied on boils in District Badin (Sindh).

Scabies

Ground A. sativumis mixed in oil to make an oily solution that applied on affected area for the treatment of scabies in District Karachi (Sindh).

Tineapedias

Quercusinfectoria Olivier. (Galloak), A. sativum, and Brasiccacampestris L. (Mustard) are mixed with oil to make a paste. This paste is applied on feets for the treatment of tineapedias in District Sajawal (Sindh).

Pyoderma

TriticumaestivumL. (Wheat) flour, Curcuma longa L. (turmeric), Trachyspermumammi, jaggary, and A. sativumare ground to make a paste. It is applied topically for the treatment of pyoderma in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Insect bite

Citrus limonumR. (Lemon) juice and crushed A. sativumare mixed togetherto make an extract, and used externally on insect bite in District Nawabshah (Sindh).

Prickly Heat

 Crushed (Sindh) is mixed with oil and applied topically for the treatment of prickly heat and scabies in District Tando Jam (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

A.sativumcontains at least 100 sulfur-containing compounds3, several enzymes, 17 amino acids, minerals,saponins alkaloid, tannin, carotenoids, flavonoids,steroids, and cardenolides4. Sulfur compounds are γ-glutamylcysteines, cysteine, allyl methyl thiosulfonate, and 1- propenylallylthio sulfonate3. Parent substance is allylcysteinesulfopoxide, or alliin, myricetin,apigenin, and quercetin5.

Chemical Structure:

Allium sativumL.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. sativumis widely used for the treatment of earaches, severe diarrhea, tumors, parasitic infectionsleprosy, deafness, and constipation. It’s used control fever, relieve stomachaches, lower blood pressure, and act as anticoagulant. Garlic is recommended by African herbalists for the prevention of respiratory and helminthic infections.Drop prepared from garlic oil is instilled in ear for treating ear infections in children. Poultices of garlic are applied topically for the prevention of wound infections6.

A. sativumis reported for antihypertensive, antihypercholesterolaemic, antiplatelet, hypoglycaemic, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, antineoplastic7,immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidantactivities8.

References

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garlic#Cancer
  2. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200027526
  3. Singh, U., Kumar, S., and Dhakal S. (2015). Future prospect of garlic usage in clinical practice of hyperlipidemia: A review. International Journal of Herbal Medicine,3(2): 38-43
  4. Otunola, G. A., Oladiji, O. B. O. A. T., andAfolayan, A. J. (2010). Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of three spices-Allium sativum ZingiberofficinaleRosc. andCapsicum frutescens L. commonly consumed in Nigeria.African Journal of Biotechnology9(41), 6927.
  5. Miean, K. H., and Mohamed, S. (2001). Flavonoid (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin) content of edible tropical plants.Journal of agricultural and food chemistry49(6), 3106-3112.
  6. http://www.longwoodherbal.org/garlic/garlic.pdf
  7. http://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKMC/article/view/13375
  8. Shrivastava, A. T. U. L., Chaturvedi, U. P. M. A., Singh, S. V., Saxena, J. K., and Bhatia, G. (2012). A mechanism based pharmacological evaluation of efficacy of Allium sativum in regulation of dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 5(3), 123-126.