Chenopodium album L.

Botanical Name:                 Chenopodium album  Leaves of Chenopodium album L.L.

Synonym:                             Anserinacandidans (Lam.) Montandon

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                     Caryophyllales

Family:                                  Amaranthaceae

Genus:                                   Chenopodium

Local Name:                        Bathua

English Name:                     Pigweed

Sindhi Name:                       Saag

Part Used:                             Leaves

 Description

Chenopodium album L. is erect and variously branched. Stems are yellowish to green and with red spots at leaf axils. Inflorescence has variable spiciform or cymosely branched panicle and mostly terminal. Perianth is segmented, keel dorsally, and fall with fruit. Pericarp is thin and adherent. Seeds are horizontal, black-colored, and ovate1.

Occurrence

C. albumis cultivated in Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America1,2.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Ring worm

Chenopodium album L. (Pigweed) is soaked in water overnight. This water is used for washing affected area for the treatment of ringworm in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).

Abscess

Ground leaves of C. album in water to make paste and applied for the treatment of abscess in District Naushahro Feroz (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

C. albumcontains lignin, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, and saponins. Different parts of C. albumcontains vitamin A and C, oleanic acid, tetain, catechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, xanthotoxin, stigmasterol, imperatorin, ecdysteroid, crytomeridiol, n-transferuloyl-4-O-methyl dopamine, lupeol, and 3-hydroxy nonadecyl henicosanoate.3-4.   20- Hydroxyecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone 20,22-monoacetonide, and 20-hydroxyecdysone 2,3-monoacetonide were isolated from leaves5. Cryptomeridiol, 8-α-acetoxycryptomeridiol, octatetracontane, and tetra-cos-1-ene were isolated from seeds6.

Chemical Structure: 

Chenopodium album L.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

C. albumis act as laxative, anthelmintic, and diuretic, and used as tonic. Plant improves appetite andhelpful in the treatment of biliousness, vata and kapha, abdominal pain, and eye diseases. It is used as potherb in treating piles. Powdered leaves are used as a dusting powder for external genitalia in children3. Plant infusion is recommended in rheumatism. Seeds are advised and chewed for curing urinary disorders. Stem juice is applied topically on area of sunburn and freckles. Leaves paste is a used as poultice or washes bugbites, swelling of feets, and joint rheumatism7. Different parts of C. albumshowed antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antineoplastic, antioxidant, immunomodultory7, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anticancer, spasmolytic and analgesic activities8.

References

  1. Flora of Pakistan:http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspxflora_id=5&taxon_id=200011856.
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chenopodium_album
  3. Al-Snafi, A., E. (2015). The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Chenopodium album-An Overview.International Journal of Pharmacological Screening Methods, 5(1), 10-17.
  4. Thomas, S. C. Li. (2000). Medicinal Plants: Culture, Utilization and Phytopharmacology,  13, CRC Press, Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington, D.C
  5. Della Greca, M., D’Abrosca, B., Fiorentino, A., Previtera, H., and Zarrelli, A. (2005). Structure elucidation and phytotoxicity of ecdysteroids from Chenopodium album. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 2(4), 457-62
  6. Bera, B., Mukherjee, K. K., Ganguli, S. N. (1991). Chemical investigation of seeds of diploid cytotypes of Chenopodiumalbum. Fitotropia, 621-178.
  7. Kokanova-Nedialkova, Z., Nedialkov, P. T., andNikolov, S. D. (2009). The genus Chenopodium: phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology. Pharmacognosy Reviews3(6), 280.
  8. Kumar, P. and S. Kumar (2015). Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses, Pharmacology of Indian Medicinal Plant (Linn).World Journal Of Pharmacy And Pharmaceutical Sciences.4(7), 404-421. Review Article ISSN 2278 – 4357